Monday, August 24, 2020

Who were the sans-culottes an Example of the Topic History Essays by

Who were the sans-culottes? The Sans-culottes were an exceptional social development toward the finish of the nineteenth century and were profoundly associated with the French Revolution. They were viewed as one of the main common laborers bunches that have political belief systems and social condition. Need paper test on Who were the sans-culottes? subject? We will compose a custom paper test explicitly for you Continue The Sans-culottes were contained the average workers or the low classes (Lewis, 1972). As characterized by Lewis (1972), sans-culottes are the individuals who stroll around exposed footed; not blinded by cash and lives agreeably with their family in a condo. Through that definition, we can say that Sans-culottes are the destitute individuals that have a place with the common laborers. Lewis (1972) definition is bit deceiving since the Sans-culottes are not commonly made out of needy individuals. Sans-culottes are included white collar class individuals that are constrained for cultural change. The principle highlight of the Sans-culottes were their long pant clothing and not the typical knee-breeched that a large portion of the French individuals worn in those days. College Students Usually Tell EssayLab writers:How much do I need to pay somebody to compose my paper online?Professional journalists recommend:Website To Help You Write An Essay Professional Writer For Hire Written Essays For Sale Best Essay Writing Service They detest the way that French nobles wore knee-breeches as a superficial point of interest. They accepted that all classes are equivalent and ought not be separated by the design. The essential precepts of the Sans-culottes are the accompanying: ideologically, they accept that all men in various classes are equivalent; they have faith in the idea of private property yet scorn the reality of exploitative abundance of the bourgeoisie and the elites; they have propensities to follow in shared property; they accept that there ought to be equivalent portion of food; finally, they need to force charges for the rich individuals. In late eighteenth century, there were confirmations that the political belief systems of the Sans-culottes were contrary to the French government and have made the white collar class and high society dread the sans-culottes. They were considered as activist savages of the France (Lewis, 1972). However, as per Hugo (1862), they were not savages yet followers of freedom and uniformity. In entirety, the Sans-culottes were a counter-development for the abusive and exploitative French power that time. References Lewis, Gwynne. (1972). Life in progressive France. New York: Putnam. Hugo, Victor. (1862). Les Miserables. Trans. Isabelle F. Hapgood. New York: Kelmscott SocietyUniversity of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center's Modern English Collection

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Health, Safety or Security Concerns Arising from a Specific Incident or Emergency Essay

The fundamental worry that may emerge when managing misuse is correspondence. This turns into a significant worry as though an understudies has a meeting or discourse impedance, it can imply that they will most likely be unable to convey how they feel about the subject, or express it accurately. In my banner I limited this boundary by recommending reasonable reactions to the circumstance. Guarantee that staff converse with the understudy in a spot where they feel great. Staff should utilize great listening abilities and record suitable notes to hand on to important individuals. After guarantee that staff individuals go to their kid insurance officials to manage the circumstance appropriately. This is significant so they can find a way to guarantee the kid is sheltered and the circumstance is managed effectively. The second worry that may emerge when managing misuse is that the understudy may not tell staff individuals how they feel as they would feel frightened if something occurs on the off chance that they tell-losing the reliance on a manhandling carer particularly if this is a key individual the understudy speak with. This could turn into a hazard when working with any of my understudies that have an incapacity. I limited this by on my banner offering staff guidance on the best way to move toward this. When conversing with understudies its significant that you cause them to feel great and fabricate a confiding in relationship, theres a superior possibility of them opening up their actual sentiments. Anyway this may not be the situation as the understudy may have gained from their consideration or more extensive experience to simply be agreeable and live with it. The last worry that may emerge when managing suspected maltreatment is the manner in which the staff manages it. They may have an absence of attention to working with crippled understudies. A youngster with Downs condition may carry on with a particular goal in mind and staff may expect this is a direct result of their inability. Suspicions are once in a while be made about debilitated kids e. g. their disposition, injury or conduct. This can bring about markers of conceivable maltreatment being erroneously ascribed to the childs weakness. Be that as it may; their conduct might be the main route for them to communicate how they really feel. In my banner I limited this by featuring sorts of misuse and markers that staff a post for in the event that they presume misuse. For instance a marker for physical maltreatment is mind boggling pardons I. e. I strolled into a light post. Nonetheless, not all the signs referenced imply that the understudy is being mishandled, however its about utilizing your sense to know whether it feels right or not. Interlopers in the school The principle worry that may emerge when managing gatecrashers in the school is getting hold of individual data. This is a significant worry for any school or school and is significant that they are halted. In the event that interlopers do enter the premises they could get hold of individual data about understudies and staff. In my banner I have featured this and offered guidance on the most proficient method to prevent this from happening on the off chance that somebody unapproved enters the structure. Processes ought to be secret key bolted when they are not being utilized and any classified administrative work ought to be placed into cupboards which are bolted. Staff ought to guarantee that all individuals staff know about this standard and if any PCs are not bolted to do as such. By having this straightforward safety effort set up, if an interloper enters it will make it increasingly hard for him/her to get to this data. In any case if these means are ot taken it can implies that private data could be utilized in a negative manner towards understudies, for example, extortion. The second worry that may emerge when managing interlopers in the school is the means by which staff and understudies will react on the off chance that they think or see somebody dubious is in the structure. When working with crippled understudies, some of them may not know whether somebody dubious or how to respond do them. The banner can help staff to advise understudies how to react to individuals coming in to their school that they don't have the foggiest idea. By giving straightforward strides, with heading makes it simpler to peruse. Likewise I have given-Ëœdo not of how not to react in a circumstance, for example, dont not go up against the gatecrasher, as it can make further peril the understudy or staff individuals. The last worry that may emerge when managing interlopers in the school is in the event that you get a gatecrashers that is equipped with a weapon-this could either be a firearm or a blade. There are numerous circumstances that you could be in, that you could uncertain how to react. In my banner I state 3 unique circumstances that you could be the point at which a threatening gatecrasher enters. By giving them every situation and steps to bring separates it and makes it more clear. While referencing these means I offer prioties to make the understudies safe. This is significant when working with understudies with handicap promotion they may realize how to respond to this circumstance, so guaranteeing that staff realize the right techniques can help keep the understudies remain quiet. D2: legitimize reactions to a specific episode or crisis in a wellbeing and social consideration setting In the second piece of this report I will legitimize my reactions to the occurrence I have talked about in P4 and M3. Gatecrashers The wellbeing of youngsters and youngsters is significant when working in any wellbeing and social consideration setting. I am working with understudies from the passage and establishment with a specialized curriculum needs. My main goal is ensure they are sheltered. the motivation behind why this was my primary goal is on the grounds that that understudies are most significant . as indicated by the data in the wellbeing and social consideration reading material , level 3. (Creators: Beryl Stretch and Mary Whitehouse) if a gatecrasher gains section, your need is to keep yourself and the individuals you care for safe. Property can be supplanted individuals can't. It was especially imperative to priotise this reaction for my understudies with unique needs as they probably won't realize how to react if a gatecrashers enters their space or perhaps can't escape without anyone else in the event that they had a physicals or visual disability. This is the reason it is significant for me to guarantee tat every one of my understudies are protected. This activity decreases future damage happening again in Entry and establishment on the grounds that the understudies may gained from my reaction the circumstance. Wellbeing and wellbeing act at work Once I have guaranteed that every one of my understudies are protected, I would ensure I educated security or the site administrator. The laws place certain duties on the two managers and workers. For Example-According to wellbeing and security act; it is dependent upon the business to give a protected spot in which to work, however the representative additionally needs to show sensible consideration for their own security. As the representative the following stage I would take is guarantee that the understudies are protected, and I would make my site supervisor or security mindful of the occurrence or interloper into the school. This would imply that they could actualize activities to help diminish further hazard for any further things occurring inside nature.

Friday, July 17, 2020

Methadone Withdrawal Symptoms, Timeline, and Treatment

Methadone Withdrawal Symptoms, Timeline, and Treatment Addiction Coping and Recovery Overcoming Addiction Print How Long Does Withdrawal From Methadone Last? By Corinne O’Keefe Osborn linkedin Corinne Osborn is an award-winning health and wellness journalist with a background in substance abuse, sexual health, and psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Corinne O’Keefe Osborn Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on February 08, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on June 25, 2019 More in Addiction Coping and Recovery Overcoming Addiction Methods and Support Personal Stories Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use In This Article Table of Contents Expand Overview Signs and Symptoms   Coping and Relief Warnings Long-Term Treatment Resources View All Back To Top Methadone is a medication that treats chronic pain and the symptoms of opioid withdrawal. It is a commonly used drug in medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of opioid addiction. When used correctly, methadone allows people to quit heroin and prescription pain killers without going into withdrawal. It is a synthetic opioid that works like other common opioids, which means that it is addictive.   When used correctly at a “maintenance dose,” methadone prevents withdrawal symptoms without making you high or sedated. People take methadone for months or years at a time. Generally, the longer you use it the better your chances of recovery, but because it’s an opioid, stopping methadone causes opioid withdrawal.   Overview Methadone withdrawal is no picnic. Doctors prescribe it for two reasonsâ€"the first is to give opioid addicts a safe, long-term option for relapse prevention, the second to treat stubborn cases of severe chronic pain. In both these scenarios, the goal of doctors is to find an immediate solution to a serious problem.   Methadone does work really well for most people, preventing innumerable overdose deaths every year. Its primary drawback is the prolonged withdrawal syndrome it can cause. Everyone’s experience getting off methadone is different. Some people find methadone withdrawal less intense than they expected. Other people think it’s worse than withdrawing from a short-acting opioid like heroin.   If you have an opioid use disorder (addiction), then you probably have an idea of what to expect from opioid withdrawal. Feeling like you have a bad flu, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, and insomnia are all common. With a short-acting opioid, these withdrawal symptoms can be intense, but they typically peak within a couple of days and then begin to resolve.   Because methadone is a long-acting opioid, the drug can remain active from anywhere between 8 and 59 hours, which means that withdrawal comes on more slowly and lasts longer. Acute methadone withdrawal symptoms can last up to 14 days, but many people also experience post-acute withdrawal symptoms for months after their last dose.   These lingering psychological symptoms leave many people feeling uncomfortable in their own skin, dissatisfied with their decision to get clean, and frustrated about their lack of progress.   Signs and Symptoms   Some doctors recommend continuing methadone therapy indefinitely. If you are thinking about quitting, talk with a doctor about the pros and cons. Quitting methadone can be a long and frustrating process, even for people without an opioid addiction. If you are using methadone to treat pain, you are still physically dependent on it and will experience withdrawal symptoms when you try to quit or reduce your dose. Your experience with methadone withdrawal will depend on a variety of factors, including your past experiences and expectations. Some people go into it thinking it’s going to be a nightmare, but it turns out to be milder than they anticipated. Others go into it thinking it will be easy and find that it requires a much greater commitment than they thought. Most people experience withdrawal symptoms within 2 to 4 days of their last dose. Your symptoms may start off mild and become more severe over the course of a few days. Once they reach peak severity, your symptoms will begin to resolve. The acute (short-term) symptoms should disappear within two weeks.   Common acute withdrawal symptoms include: bone and joint aches and painflu-like feelingsweatingrunny nosechillsnausea or vomitingcramping or diarrheainsomnia or disturbed sleepteary eyestremorsanxiety or restlessness  goosefleshagitationskin-crawling   Methadone withdrawal symptoms vary from mild to moderate. To get a better idea of the scale, you can check out the  Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) that doctors use to diagnose their patients. Post-acute withdrawal, which is also known as protracted withdrawal, begins in the weeks following your detox. These symptoms are most common in long-term opioid abusers. Opioids affect the way your brain works, flooding your brain with euphoria-inducing neurotransmitters every time you get high. After you detox, your brain is operating with depleted stores of neurotransmitters. It can take up to six months for your brain to return to normal.   During that time, you may experience symptoms such as: depressionlow energy levels  a low tolerance for stress (short fuse)  trouble sleepingthe inability to experience pleasure from anything  problems with memory or concentrationirritability or agitation   These symptoms may come and go over the course of several weeks or months. They can be extremely frustrating for both people in recovery and their loved ones. It helps to keep in mind that these symptoms are temporary and should resolve within the year. Coping and Relief The best way to cope with methadone withdrawal is to avoid skipping doses or trying to quit abruptly. Even if you are frustrated and sick of going to a clinic or pharmacy every day for a supervised dose, it is best to avoid abrupt cessation. Instead, talk to your prescribing doctor about tapering.   Tapering methadone means gradually taking smaller doses over the course of several weeks or months. Although tapering is considered the best way of detoxing from methadone, it can still be challenging. You are likely to experience withdrawal symptoms each time your dose is cut. Working closely with a doctor, you can extend your taper timeline and reduce your dose by smaller increments if necessary.   The  World Health Organization recommends reducing your dose by 5 to 10mg per week until you reach a dose of 40mg. After that, reductions should slow to 5mg per week. They acknowledge that this is only a general recommendation and that the taper schedule should be tailored to each individual’s needs.   Dose reductions can occur once a week, once every two weeks, or less often. Sometimes one dose reduction is harder than the others and uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms occur. When this happens, your doctor can pause the taper at that level and wait several weeks before reducing the dose again.     If you are experiencing withdrawal symptoms when you reduce your dose, your doctor may recommend treating your symptoms with other medications. The  American Society for Addiction Medicine  recommends doctors consider prescribing the following medications: Clonidine,  a hypertension drug regularly used off-label to treat opioid withdrawal symptoms. It is available as a pill or a transdermal patch.  Loperamide  to treat diarrhea.  Ondansetron  to treat nausea and vomiting.  Benzodiazepines  to treat short-term anxiety.  OTC pain relievers, like Tylenol or Advil, to treat aches and pains.   There is another option that you may want to talk to your doctor about:  Lucemyra (lofexidine hydrochloride). Lucemyra is a new medication; its similar to clonidine and recently approved by the  FDA to treat the symptoms of opioid withdrawal. It is the first non-opioid medication clinically proven to do so. Lucemyra works by reducing the release of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter that researchers believe plays a role in the symptoms of opioid withdrawal.   If you are experiencing insomnia or disordered sleeping, you might also want to ask your doctor for something to help you sleep. Your doctor might give you a prescription for  trazadone or suggest an  OTC antihistamine, like Benadryl, to help you sleep. Warnings Opioid withdrawal is rarely dangerous for healthy adults, but some people need to be more cautious than others. Most notably, pregnant women.     Opioid withdrawal can cause pregnancy complications, including miscarriage and premature birth. If you are currently using methadone or other opioids, it is best to continue with methadone until the end of your pregnancy. Methadone is  proven safe and effective for use during pregnancy. It does not cause birth defects or pregnancy complications. Although it is possible that your child will be born with an opioid dependence, which means they will need to detox.     It’s important to keep in touch with both an obstetrician (OBGYN) and an addiction doctor throughout your pregnancy. Pregnancy affects the way your body metabolizes methadone, so your dose may need adjusting as your pregnancy advances.     Although the laws about opioid abuse during pregnancy do differ among the states, methadone is safe and legalâ€"you should not run into any problems when you seek treatment.   You should also talk to your doctors about your plans after giving birth. Breastfeeding is generally considered safe during methadone treatment. If you want to stop taking methadone, your doctor will talk to you about an appropriate tapering timeline. They may advise waiting until your body feels back to normal.   One last warning: Relapse is common among opioid users. After you detox from methadone, your opioid tolerance will be much lower than it used to be. If you relapse with heroin or prescription painkillers, you will be at risk of a life-threatening overdose.     Long-Term Treatment It is not unusual for people with opioid use disorders to go on and off methadone over the course of several months or years. Detoxing from methadone is a great step, but it doesn’t mean that you’ve beaten your addiction. Proper addiction treatment takes a multifaceted approach that combines medication management with psychotherapy and social support. The primary goal of long-term treatment is to prevent relapse. Relapse rates among people with opioid use disorders are very high.  Research shows that roughly 3 in 4 people who complete opioid detoxification relapse within 2 to 3 years. These numbers aren’t pretty, but don’t let them scare or discourage you. Relapse is a part of the recovery process. Knowing the odds will help you understand the value of ongoing treatment.   Remember that it is not uncommon for people to overdose and die during a relapse. Fortunately, there is a non-opioid medication available that can help reduce your risk.   Naltrexone is what’s known as an opioid antagonist (similar to the naloxone in Suboxone). Naltrexone binds to the opioid receptors and acts like a blockade, preventing other opioids from binding to those same receptors. This means that even if you relapse and use an opioid, you won’t get high (but you can overdose). Knowing that using an opioid won’t get you high should discourage you from impulsively relapsing.   Naltrexone is available with a prescription and can be taken as a daily pill or a monthly injection. Because naltrexone can bring on instantaneous withdrawal, you shouldn’t start using it until all the methadone is out of your system. This can take as long as 14 days. Research shows that a combination of talk therapy and medication management is more effective at treating opioid use disorders than medication alone. When it comes to therapy, you have a variety of options. Most methadone clinics offer some sort of counseling, so that’s a good place to start. Once you have tapered down, you might want to find something more convenient, like a therapist in private practice or at a local community health clinic. You can also look into group therapy sessions, which are often held at hospitals and other addiction treatment facilities. Finally, social support is a key aspect of relapse prevention. Many people find support at local 12-step meetings, such as Narcotics Anonymous. Resources To find a psychiatrist or psychologist who specializes in opioid use disorders, you can use this searchable directory from the  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). You can also call SAMHSA’s national helpline at 1-800-662-HELP (4357).   To find more information about Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings in your area, check out their  website. You can find a meeting near you with their  searchable directory.    If your loved one is trying to recover from opioid addiction, you may want to consider a support group for friends and family, such as  Nar-Anon. A Word From Verywell   Methadone detox isn’t easy. Just take things one step at a time and don’t get discouraged by the rate of your progress. Recovery can be a slow and grueling slog at times, but things will get betterâ€"just keep at it.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Document Common Sense By Thomas Paine - 1714 Words

The document Common Sense by Thomas Paine was written in 1775, and published in 1776. Though, in order to be shared with the public, Thomas Paine had to be inspired first. Some of the more common inspirations were derived from the ideas of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. The main points of Thomas Paine’s document were to separate from English rule and to form a democratic nation. Some of John Locke’s most common ideas of the human nature were that humans needed independence to thrive, a statement aligning with Paine’s strongly. Common Sense was written when America was on its way to the American Revolution, but what made Paine write this masterpiece? Paine truly believed that in order to get the freedom they wanted, the thirteen colonies need to break off from England completely. Paine applied â€Å"simple common sense† in the pamphlet to show the people that the only way to protect their rights was to declare independence. His true inspiration was the fact that he really wanted to obtain freedom from England and everything that was going on around him helped him in writing this. Paine was not only influenced by what was going on around him, but in ways he was influenced by the writings of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. The enlightenment gave Paine some in ways unexplainable but during the years he was in London, â€Å"Paine soaked up the ideas of the Enlightenment.† Paine had ideas like Lockean liberalism, classical republicanism, and Leveller radicalism all displayed in hisShow MoreRelatedPrimary Source Analysis Common Sense Essays796 Words   |  4 Pages Primary Source Analysis Thomas Paine Common Sense Context: In result of The Seven Years’ War Britain controlled American trade and territory. In order to pay for the expenses of the war several taxation acts and military presence were implemented such as the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Currency Act, Quartering Act and the presence of British troops at the colonies. Consequently, Americans who thought these actions violated their political and constitutional liberties opposed these policies withRead MoreCommon Sense Vs. Declaration Of Independence957 Words   |  4 PagesCommon Sense v. Declaration of Independence Common Sense written by Thomas Paine in January of 1776, enlightened its readers and ignited the colonists towards the American Revolution. Common Sense was the first document that established a suggestion towards a constitutional form of government. The foundation of the main points in Common Sense were the upbringing of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson in July of 1776 approximately 7 monthsRead MoreThomas Paine Common Sense Analysis1052 Words   |  5 PagesDeclaration of Independence† and Thomas Paine’s â€Å"Common Sense.† Basically, the two documents echo principles stated in John Locke’s â€Å"Second Treatise of Government,† and share a style of expressing their feelings on national issues; the authors examine and give reasons for colonial problems with the government and offer a solution. The tone and audience might vary, but the overall message is similar in its principles, s howing the impact Locke and Paine had on such a vital document in our history as the â€Å"DeclarationRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine992 Words   |  4 PagesA poet once said, â€Å"There are two documents in American history that made America what it is today. Common Sense by Thomas Paine was inspiring to many American colonists as it was persuasive in showing how the colonists should have their own independence. Paine appealed the average citizen’s rationale, hence the title Common Sense. Paine’s pamphlet illustrates the importance of independence, and argues that colonial life under British rule was detrimental to America’s potential to become prosperousRead MoreSummarize and compare and contrast the English Bill of Rights, the Cahier of the 3rd Estate and Common Sense.1484 Words   |  6 PagesRights, the Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris and Common Sense were all written during a time of revolution in their respective countries. Alth ough all three political writings originated in a different country, they each share several important similarities. Each document also addressed specific issues, which the others did not. The English Bill of Rights, the Cahier of the Third Estate of the City of Paris and Common Sense all served as a bridge between their countries different formsRead MoreSimilarities Between Common Sense And The Declaration Of Independence1489 Words   |  6 Pagesmain documents that have directly and indirectly affected the American Revolution are The Declaration of Independence (July 1776), Thomas Paine’s â€Å"Common Sense† (January 1776), and John Locke’s â€Å"Second Treatise of Government† (1689). All of these documents are related to one another in the fact that they paved the way for the future of America and led to the amazing country we live in today. To start off, there are many similarities in regards to The Declaration of Independence and â€Å"Common Sense†Read MoreCommon Sense And The Declaration Of Independence1517 Words   |  7 PagesCommon Sense and the Declaration of Independence are two very important documents in American history. Written by Thomas Paine, although not an official document, promotes thoughts that the citizens understood and needed, but did not know how to express their actions and ideas. The Declaration states the necessary reasons for independence in the colonies as well as the importance that their are equal rights. The Declaration announced to the world as a unanimous decision that the thirteen coloniesRead MoreThomas Paine And The Bill Of Rights880 Words   |  4 PagesThomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson and the Bill of Rights are three things that have some sort of connection. Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson both have documents. Their documents were both a result for the rule that Great Brit ain had over us. The Bill of Rights is also a piece where its writing had to do with a freedom type document written to let others feel free. Thomas Paine was one of the great supporters of the American Revolution. He was a journalist and used his utensils to get the public toRead MoreEssay on Common Sense1172 Words   |  5 Pagesfor American Independence, Thomas Paine offers much advice in both Common Sense, and The Crisis. Paine offers very strong arguments in Common Sense, which are supported by his own reason, his sensibility, his common sense and by his ability to draw inference from what has already happened. Paine uses every element in his ability to help give more depth to his arguments and plans. However, of all the cases Thomas Paine makes in Common Sense, the ultimate goal of Paine is to incite the American PublicRead MoreThe Pursuit Of Happiness By Thomas Paine And Declaration Of Independence975 Words   |  4 Pageswhere one have to forcefully or unwillingly move ahead in life and where there is no gain or possible loss. When bad changes become unbearable and unfair, it starts revolution. Common Sense by Thomas Paine and Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson plays major contribution in American Revolution which made common men realize true color of selfish and unfair monarchy system of Britain. A revolution occurs when a king or government is misusing their power and mistreating their people. American

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson Essay - 693 Words

Analysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson was written in 1948. The story takes place in a village square of a town on June 27th. The author does not use much emotion in the writing to show how the barbaric act that is going on is look at as normal. This story is about a town that has a lottery once a year to choose who should be sacrificed, so that the town will have a plentiful year for growing crops. Jackson has many messages about human nature in this short story. The most important message she conveys is how cruel and violent people can be to one another. Another very significant message she conveys is how custom and tradition can hold great power over people. Jackson also conveys the message of†¦show more content†¦The children do it, as do the family members of whoever is picked. No one stands up and says how horrible this act is. Jackson demonstrates how people everywhere can do these horrible things to others and everyone just think of it as ordinary. Another mess age that Jackson illustrates is the blind following of tradition and how that can be a terrible thing. All the members of the community participate in this horrible act because it is a tradition. The people believe that if it is a tradition it then the lottery must not be a bad thing. When Old Man Warner heard that some communities had stopped the lottery he called them a â€Å"pack of crazy fools.† He said, â€Å"There’s always been a lottery.†(247) Jackson shows how a tradition can be so brutal yet everyone will go with it because it’s in fact tradition. To go against tradition would be to go against the community, so no one is willing to do that. Jackson shows the long running tradition when the black box that is used to hold the slips of paper never changes. It shows the inability for change in the community. A minor message that Jackson conveys is the idea that men treat women as subordinate in their society. In the story the men always draw from the box for the families. Jackson proves how men treat the women like objects when Tessie, the women who in the end gets stoned, questions the fact that the drawing wasn’t fair and her husband just told her to shut up.Show MoreRelatedAn Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson744 Words   |  3 Pagesâ€Å"The Lottery† - For Analysis 1. There are multiple examples to suggest that â€Å"The Lottery† is a ritualistic ceremony. In several instances â€Å"The Lottery† is referred to as a ritual: â€Å" much of the ritual had been forgotten..† and â€Å"†¦because so much of the ritual had been forgotten†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . In addition, the ceremony happens annually on June 27th, a t0:00 a.m., suggesting a ceremonial quality. This happens with such regularity that the citizens â€Å"†¦only half listened to the directions†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . This ceremonyRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson Analysis732 Words   |  3 PagesFollowing other people may have a positive or negative effect, but when it reaches a certain point where you blindly follow others it may not have a positive outcome. â€Å"The Lottery† made by Shirley Jackson is about a small community of villagers that gather together every year to perform a tradition. All of the villagers gather together and draw small sl ips of paper from a black wooden box, whoever draws the first slip with the black dot on it, their family has to draw first. Now all of the membersRead MoreEssay on The Lottery by Shirley Jackson: an Analysis1522 Words   |  7 PagesKouyialis EN102: Composition II Professor Eklund The Lottery by Shirley Jackson: An Analysis The short story â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson was written in 1948 and takes place in a small town, on the 27th of June. In this story, the lottery occurs every year, around the summer solstice. All families gather together to draw slips of paper from a black box. When reading this story, it is unclear the full premise of the lottery until near the end. The heads of households are the firstRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson910 Words   |  4 PagesLiterary Analysis of the Short Story â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson Shirley Jackson explores the subject of tradition in her short story â€Å"The Lottery†. A short story is normally evaluated based on its ability to provide a satisfying and complete presentation of its characters and themes. Shirley describes a small village that engages in an annual tradition known as â€Å"the lottery†. Narrating the story from a third person point of view, Shirley uses symbolism, foreshadowing and suspense to illustrateRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson1534 Words   |  7 Pages Literary Analysis: â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson is a short story written in 1948. Due to World War II ending around this time, her story took some strong criticism. The people at that time wanted uplifting stories, and this story is the very opposite because of its underlying theme of tradition and conformity. â€Å"The Lottery† shows that no matter the tradition or belief, people will not stray from their daily routine because humans are creatures of habitRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson773 Words   |  4 PagesIn the short story, The Lottery, written by Shirley Jackson, is about a small village or some type of society with a yearly tradition called, the lottery. From what the reader may read online, they may find out that during the time period Jackson wrote this, she was interested in magic and witchcraft. Not only that she was also rumored to have gotten rocks thrown at her by children who believed she was a witch. One may also say, that the story wa s absolutely unique and the ending completely shockingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson1060 Words   |  5 Pagesthird point of view about other but our view are mostly to always limited, not knowing everything. In a story called â€Å"Charles† by Shirley Jackson, the author creates a limited first point of view of Laurels mother where the reader reads and understand only what Laurie’s mother understand and see. In the other story also written by Shirley Jackson called â€Å"The Lottery†, the story proceed at a limited third point of view where the reader understands more ideas. Although each storied have a differentRead MoreAnalysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson993 Words   |  4 PagesSpanish author, When we blindly adopt a religion, a political system, a literary dogma, we become automatons. We cease to grow. Shirley Jackson was born in 1919 in San Francisco, California to Leslie and Geraldine Jackson. She is most well known for her s hort story titled â€Å"The Lottery† which was first published in The New Yorker to overwhelming and mixed reviews. The lottery, as portrayed in the short story, is a religious, annual ceremony in the afternoon of June 27. This event is said to be olderRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson Analysis802 Words   |  4 PagesIf everyone else was doing something, would you? Or maybe if someone needed to be stood up for, would you have their back? In The Lottery, people do follow other people blindly. And the consequences are devastating. But in First They Came, not having someone’s back might get you in the same position†¦ The Lottery by Shirley Jackson is a story that takes place in a small village on a warm summer day. Little boy’s run around in boisterous play, collecting small stones into a pile. As the adults gatherRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson784 Words   |  4 Pagesthose groups. Then they came out for him and there was no one left to speak out for him. In the story â€Å"the lottery† by Shirley Jackson it explained how they play the lottery but rather than winning its actually a loss if you win. In the story they have a black box and slips of paper and if you have a black dot on your paper you get stoned to death. In their town it’s a tradition to play the lottery. So they come to the town square they all get called up to get their slip of paper and when everyone gets

Being Chicano in America Free Essays

The plight of the Hispanic citizen in the United States is difficult to characterize; a massive demographic that has made its home in an equally massive nation – every major US city today boasts an impressive and diverse Hispanic population. Nowhere is this more true than in Los Angeles and New York City, where Hispanic Americans number in the millions. But who are Hispanic Americans? To what degree have they assimilated to the broader â€Å"mainstream† American culture? How do they differ from one another? In major American cities, Hispanics have, by degrees, experienced a blend of alienation and acceptance. We will write a custom essay sample on Being Chicano in America or any similar topic only for you Order Now First, it must be understood that the broadly defined â€Å"Hispanic† or â€Å"Latino† label is itself a vast oversimplification. The US Census Bureau is the first to acknowledge that Hispanic Americans can belong to any of 13 distinct races (Cohen 88). Many people think that all Hispanic people are the same, but in actuality the term Hispanic refers to many different types of people. The term Hispanic American is not necessarily a precise linguistic description of this demographic group based on its economic, social, political and cultural diversity. Most Hispanic-Americans speak Spanish and originated from the same part of the hemisphere. Typically, most Hispanics came to America from Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Central America, and South America. . Most Mexicans come to the United States to earn higher wages and to support their families back in Mexico. Mexican Americans were treated inferiorly by Caucasian Americans until the late 1990s despite the 1848 Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo which gave Mexican Americans the right to maintain their culture in the United States (Schaefer, 2006). Mexican American children were forced to attend segregated schools that lacked adequate supplies and educated teachers. This â€Å"de jure† school segregation lasted 1975 when the U. S. Supreme Court declared the segregation unconstitutional (Schaefer, 2006). Even after the school systems were integrated, Spanish speaking children were treated unfairly by teachers. In the 1960s, integrated schools in New York and Florida refused to allow Hispanic children to speak Spanish during school hours (Schaefer, 2006). Eventually, a law was passed that required communities with a Hispanic population of at least 5% to provide bilingual education classes to students (Schaefer, 2006). Bilingual education caused controversy amongst many Hispanic groups. Hispanic school children began to fall behind because they believed that the â€Å"English Immersion† classes because the purpose was to assimilate children while depriving them of their native language. Cuban-Americans tend to be concentrated in Miami and on the East Coast. Most of the Cuban population immigrated to the United States during the 1950s, after the takeover of Cuba by the radical communist leader Fidel Castro. The Cubans that fled their home country as refugees tended to be well-educated, wealthy, and politically conservative, and they retained these traits once in the United States. Cubans immigrants that have been in America for a long period of time tend to be better-educated other Hispanic populations, while Mexican-Americans, who may be more recent immigrants, come from an economic situation with poor economic opportunities, may tend to be less well-educated. One reason for the political difference between Mexican and Cuban-Americans in terms of their voting affiliation may be that Mexican-Americans are often fleeing what they perceived to be an unfair right-wing government that is hostile to creating economic opportunities for the lower classes. Unlike Cuban-Americans, Mexican-Americans tend to be more politically liberal on social issues, although they are more politically conservative on social issues if they strongly identify with their Catholic heritage than non-Hispanic individuals of a similar liberal political affiliation. Of Central and South American Hispanics, such as Nicaraguans or El Salvadorians, political affiliation is highly influential upon the nature of the regime the individuals were fleeing. El Salvador was dominated by right-wing leaders who drove many individuals from the nation, versus the left-wing Nicaraguan government of the Sandinistas in the 1980s. Most Hispanics, regardless of where they hail from strongly support the death penalty and family values, although, contrary to conservative stereotype 91% said they disagreed with the present President Bush on issues pertaining to immigration (Corral, 2004). Geographically, of Latino groups, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans are the most likely to live urban locations, but all Hispanic Americans were more likely to be urban dwellers than their White counterparts. Hispanic-Americans are also more likely to be employed in service occupations, particularly Mexican-Americans and Mexicans have the lowest annual earnings, overall, of all Hispanics. Hispanics are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to have earnings of $35,000 or more each year. Thus, although Mexican-Americans may be disproportionately afflicted by poverty, this may be a reflection of their greater numbers and more recent immigrant status, given that Mexican-Americans outnumber other Hispanic-Americans according to most recent census figures. All Hispanic-Americans, although they may be profoundly culturally and politically different in their home nations have common political interests because of the current state of inequity that exists in America between Whites and Hispanics. Furthermore, because they are growing as a demographic and tend to be younger, Hispanics have a political interest in banding together as a powerful interest group to further their interests as a people, even if they might not perceive themselves as unified in such a way that transcends age-old cultural differences. Hispanic-Americans can benefit from joining together as an interest group to improve social conditions for themselves and fight against discrimination (Inventing Hispanics, 2001). Even across cultures, between politically conservative Cubans and liberal Nicaraguans, similarities exist. This sentiment is reflected in the profile of all Hispanic immigrant groups, which tend to live in closer proximity to their extended family, and retain close ties to family that still resides their home country. While the political regime in that nation may affect the type of contact that is possible or feasible for immigrants to America to retain, the determination to keep contact with that group and to facilitate immigration by extended family ‘back’ in the home country was common across all Hispanic-American groups. As with any demographic, Hispanics do not rise and fall as one people, but rather experience gains and setbacks regionally and of course, individually. Thus, it is not surprising that Hispanics in Los Angeles may experience very different things than their ounterparts in New York City. For one thing, the Hispanic population of Los Angeles is largely Mexican. In the state of California as a whole, 84% of all Hispanics are of Mexican origin; in Los Angeles, this figure is just as high (Pew Hispanic Center 1). By contrast, in New York City, there are a plethora of different peoples that comprise the Hispanic population. A patchwork of Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, South and Central Americans, Cubans, and Mexicans is blanketed over metropolitan New York, and in some respects, Hispanic neighborhoods reflect this. For example, Castle Hill, Hunts Point and Grand Concourse in the Bronx are predominantly Puerto Rican areas; Roosevelt Avenue, Corona, and Jackson Heights in Queens are home to New York’s up and coming South American population (Ramirez de la Cruz 2-6). These many distinctions reflect not only in the physical appearance of the â€Å"average† Hispanic in New York, but also in the customs and ideologies that are embraced within each of these communities. It is perhaps because of these many Hispanic subsets that so many foreign-born Latinos in New York appear to have much closer ties to their country of origin than do Hispanics in Los Angeles. In a recent survey, over seven in ten foreign-born Latinos in New York said they consider their â€Å"real homeland to be in the country where they were born†, as opposed to the 57% of California Hispanics that said the same thing (Pew Hispanic Center 2). As a corollary to this, nearly half of foreign-born New York Hispanics plan to permanently return to their country of origin some day; only one third of California Hispanics make the same claim (Pew Hispanic Center 2). Do these trends speak to the degrees by which Hispanics in America feel alienated by mainstream society? If so, it is a difficult conclusion to reconcile with other phenomena that affect Hispanics directly. In both New York City and Los Angeles the Hispanic community is thriving; as such, the majority of New York City’s Hispanics are classified as â€Å"highly/partially acculturated†, and in Los Angeles, the Hispanic Population has tripled since 1980 (Hutchinson 47). What this means is that in both New York City and Los Angeles, Hispanics are enjoying a cultural connectedness that transcends their point of origin. This is evidenced by an overwhelming proficiency with English and Spanish, and a unique ability to vacillate comfortably between the Hispanic and â€Å"American† cultures. The average Hispanic that arrives in New York City or Los Angeles will find not only that he or she is in good company, but that a rich, distinct cultural enclave awaits. In each of these colossal media markets, an immigrant Hispanic will find himself in a culture that, though new to him, is nonetheless at pains to communicate and connect with him in a familiar way. Politicians will be clamoring for his vote, many of whom may bear a Hispanic surname. Stores, shops and markets run by Hispanics and stocked with foods from his country of origin will be easy to find. Spanish language radio stations, television stations, and advertisements will all be aimed at attracting his specific attention—and his dollar. In Los Angeles, where 40% of the metro is Hispanic, Spanish Language radio stations consistently bring in higher ratings than any other stations in the market (Ramirez de la Cruz 3-7). The power of the Hispanic consumer has not gone unnoticed. This is not to say that Hispanics in New York or Los Angeles do not experience discrimination. Roughly 30% of Hispanics in both places claim to have been in contact with some form of discrimination because of their racial/ethnic background (Pew Hispanic Center 3). A difference between East and West, however, lies in the perceived root cause of that discrimination. The majority of Hispanics in New York believe that they are discriminated against mainly for the fact that they are Spanish-speaking; whereas Los Angeles Hispanics are more likely to assert that it is their physical appearance that attracts discrimination (Pew Hispanic Center 3). Hispanics are also discriminating against one another in the United States; not surprisingly, in New York the cause of this discrimination is the very diversity that exists within the demographic. In Los Angeles, where the Hispanic population is overwhelmingly Mexican, discrimination within the demographic tends to reflect social conditions, with wealthier Hispanics discriminating against their poorer counterparts. In each region, however, intra-racial discrimination among Hispanics is cited as a â€Å"major problem† by at least half of all Hispanics (Pew Hispanic Center 4). The intriguing history of the United States of America has certainly added an interesting chapter in recent years; it is a chapter that belongs to its fastest growing demographic: Hispanics. It is now widely understood that in the next 50 years, Hispanics will likely supplant the â€Å"white† race as the largest racial group in this country (Cohen 91). This has raised some notorious fears about a balkanized United States made up of ethnic enclaves. It has also caused some to express grave concern about the preservation of the English language in the US, and the â€Å"American† way that was forged in the white Puritan crucible. As probably a reaction both SB 1070, to deter undocumented immigrants, and the DREAM act- a piece of legislation that is on the other polar end of the spectrum were formed to both combat, and aid in the acceptance of Hispanic immigrants. Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (â€Å"DREAM Act†) was introduced in the United States Senate, and the United States House of Representatives . This proposition would give those inadmissible or deportable alien students who graduate from US high schools, who are of good moral character, arrived in the U. S. s minors, and have been in the country continuously for at least five years prior to the bill’s enactment, the opportunity to earn conditional permanent residency and thus continue their studies and be a part of Americas work force. S. B. 1070 was formed as en effort to force people of Latino decent to have their documentation on them at all times. This has caused much controversy, as it has been the pillar for racial profiling and discrimination discussions. Socioeconomic status drives the inequalities in the school system. The low and working class have less time and income to intervene with schooling. This means they have less time to meet with teachers, hire tutors, and provide continuous transportation. Therefore the lower class can’t possibly compete with the middle and upper classes. Many Latino students feel inferior in United States School systems. Another explanation to this is a theory of cultural deprivation. This is the idea that certain cognitive styles connect to different ethnic groups. It just so happens that what school demands from students is a characteristic of the White and Asian races, which is abstraction , while other less successful groups like African Americans and Latinos possess more concrete thinking. Current manifestations of this can be seen from Samuel Huntington’s article â€Å"The Hispanic Challenge. † Huntington believes that the Latino culture is deprived because lations have not assimilated into American culture, and thus, can’t succeed within its boundaries. According to Huntington, unlike previous immigrants, Hispanics wish to retain a dual culture. This presents them with the culture clash of two varying views on culture as well as education. There are several factors that have made this culture of immigrants assimilations’ so much different than the past immigrants that America has so fondly welcomed with open arms. These include contiguity, scale illegality regional concentration, persistence and historical presence. The fact that the US shares such a large border with Mexico is enhanced by the great economic differences on each side. â€Å"The income gap between the United States and Mexico is the largest between any two contiguous countries in the world† (Huntington). The incentive to immigrate is obvious, and allows Latinos to remain in contact with their family and friends while making a living in the US. Because the passage between these borders is so accessible, it has lead to immigration on a grand scale. The persistence of Hispanics in migrating has lead to having Mexicans account for nearly half of all immigration to the US and has changed Mexican’s standing from the minority to the majority in many areas. This regional concentration has slowed assimilation because â€Å"dispersal is essential† for this to take place. An example of regional concentration slowing this process down to almost a halt is in Miami in which the Cuban population has dominated and Cuban culture is overwhelmingly evident. Much of this immigration has also been done illegally, supporting the fact that Cubans do not possess a strong desire to assimilate. Many Hispanics feel like they should not have to assimilate into an area that is historically theirs. Many feel like this land was stolen from them and have the right to rebel against political, legal and cultural standings. There is also much support from fellow Hispanics in this cause because â€Å"blood is thicker than borders† (Huntington) that is, who you are should overcome where you live. In the US today, there is no need or incentive for Hispanics to assimilate into the â€Å"American† culture. There is actually more reason to retain Hispanic culture than to let it go. Hispanics are not willing to buy into America, and thus continue to possess several cultural traits that hold them back. These include â€Å"lack of initiative, self reliance and ambition as well as little or no use for education, [and that] hard work is not the way to material prosperity† (Huntington). For these reasons, Hispanics are rejecting the ways of the US culture, but in that, they also reject the characteristics of success in school and life that come with the assimilation into this culture. Huntington’s article says â€Å"Mexican Americans will share in that dream and in that society only if they dream in English. † The reasons that compel Latino individuals to migrate from their home countries to this one vary greatly. Some immigrants are motivated in hopes of escaping political turmoil, while others are motivated by the prospect of attaining an â€Å"education or economic opportunities with the hopes of improving their lives† (Santiago-Rivera et al. , p. 56). According to Gallardo-Cooper, one way to capture the complexity of the adaptation process is by examining its various manifestations. This process is described in a framework using three dimensions: complete assimilation, acculturation/ integration, and rejection of the American culture. The incorporation of â€Å"values of the majority culture† is more prevalent in those members of a community that have been living in the United States the longest (Ramirez and Castaneda). A first generation Mexican immigrant is less likely to accept the majority culture as his own than a second generation Mexican American. Understandably, a third generation Mexican American would be more susceptible than previous generations towards assimilation. Many hispanic children are Bilingual, but prefer to speak English, primarily. A movement away from traditional Latino family values and â€Å"avoid[ance] of Latino leisure activities† are also signs of assimilation, and many children exhibit both of these attributes (Ramirez Castaneda). Assimilation or acculturation perspectives would be expected to arise from the pressures to incorporate the values of mainstream America that are felt, in both, dualistic and atraditional communities. Many kids have assimilated, however, despite growing up in a traditional community. A traditional community is a cohesive unit where there are close ties between most families, which are related by blood, marriage or religious ceremony. The â€Å"traditional community is ethnically homogeneous; most residents in these communities† are of Latino descent (Ramirez and Castaneda, pg. 89). Additionally, Spanish is the primary language spoken in these communities. These factors serve to instill a strong sense of identification with the ethnic group. Ramirez and Castaneda, however, emphasize that within every community some variability will be observed from individual to individual, which would account for the contradictory assimilationist attitude observed in some Hispanic children. As a child raised in a traditional community, one would be socialized to â€Å"achieve cooperatively† and â€Å"achieve for the family† (Ramirez and Castaneda). The interpersonal relationships typically found in a traditional community are such that relationships within the extended family take priority over those formed outside the family. The strong interpersonal relationships typically found in a traditional community are apparently absent in many immigrant children’s lives. While growing up sometimes the only close relationships had are relationships with the family. The extended family becomes virtually non-existent in life as a result of the migration. Peer groups play a crucial role in the socialization of adolescents in a dualistic community. Relationships in peer groups are very close, long lasting, and demand commitment for mutual help; membership in these peer groups parallels family ties. As an adolescent. Values related to Hispanic ideology have a strong influence in a traditional community, but have little influence on child socialization in a dualistic community. For example the parent may adhere to tradition religious practices, such as Catholicism- but children aren’t forced to, who may find that these practices are rigid and outdated. That outlook on religion compares with the sentiments observed in Mexican American youths growing up in a dualistic community. The traits of family centeredness and religiosity may reflect positively or negatively on group members, depending on the extent to which individuals’ behavior is consistent with the traits. People who deviate from these prescriptive behaviors may be seen as traitors to their community. They may therefore be seen as â€Å"acting white,† or being traitors if they reject the Catholicism of their communities. Consequently, it is not surprising that ethnic identity may itself be shaped by ethnic stereotypes. In conclusion the Latino population experiences a unique type of discrimination that is both de facto and de jure. Aside from blatant anti-Latino, there exists mechanism and laws the inherently discriminate against Latinos. This research has given me a greater understanding of the Hispanic culture, how they differ amongst their own varying factions. This is important in my field because one may make assumptions based on a very broad categories. There are stands difference not only between the different Spanish speaking populations, but also the generations. This better explains one’s ability or desire to assimilate, it gives insight to understanding how discrimination and oppression acutely affects them. How to cite Being Chicano in America, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Magnetic Turtle an Example of the Topic Education and science by

Magnetic Turtle by Expert Leah. | 08 Dec 2016 Abstract Need essay sample on "Magnetic Turtle" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Earths magnetic field serves as ubiquitous source of directional and positional information for many marine animals. These animals use this information for their needs to survive like choosing correct migratory pathways, returning back home and to catch their prey to name a few. This has been confirmed by many researchers by behavioral experiments on many marine animals. Some examples are migration of Hatchling sea turtle in the North Atlantic Gyre, navigation of Spiny Lobsters and magnetic orientation behavior of Tritonia Diomedea. This paper reviews the magnetic navigation behavior of the Hatchling Sea Turtles and Spiny Lobsters and the behavioral experiments carried out to confirm the same by different researchers. Very little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying magnetic navigation behavior of different marine animals due to complexity of neural network. Therefore, researchers have chosen Tritonia Diomedea, which has relatively simple neural network and studied its magnetic orientation behavior by employing electrophysiological methods to explore the underlying neural mechanisms and try to extract the bigger picture by analyzing and correlating the data. This paper reviews the research in this direction as well and discusses important findings and finally the author concludes that besides behavioral experiments little is known at least about the basic mechanisms and processes underlying the magnetic navigation behavior of marine animals and besides the other important aspects of the issue, work needs to be done on the role played by higher order processing in circuits involving the sensory information. Sensory System and Navigation Human beings are having a set of sensory systems that fullfils their needs of survival on this planet in their habitat. The important sensory systems are the vision system, the hearing system, contact sensing system, temperature sensing system etc. Any of the sensory systems can be looked upon to be made up of receptors, signal processing systems and actuation mechanisms. These sensory systems are known to adapt to the habitat and guides our actions, reactions whatever we call it. In different organisms different sensory systems are evolved different levels of sophistication according to the needs of their habitat. Of these sensory systems, it is mainly the vision system that guides navigation behavior of most of the organisms, at least on the land mass of the Earth. The organisms that rely on their vision system identify and store various landmarks and thus make a map, in their mind, which they use to navigate to the desired destinations. Besides, they have visibly identifiable direction markers like rising and setting sun and different stars. So obsessed we are with our vision system, which is quite natural looking at the extent to which we rely on it for our own navigational and other needs, that apparently it looks as the only possible sensory system to support a sophisticated navigational behavior. However, scientific finding contradict this notion and present before us strange observations where highly sophisticated navigational behavior of many species could exists with little support from the vision system. This is observed mainly in marine animals. These animals reside in different habitat, need to migrate on different length and time scales and finally they need to return home. Not only this, they need to be reasonably accurate and precise on their pathway during the course of migration as the deviation from the proper path could prove fatal. Surprisingly they do so under seawater, where sunlight can hardly reach to shine their habitat or pathways, visibility is very poor due to turbidity and more importantly their habitat lacks features or what we say without any landmark (so obsessed we are with landmarks!). Migratory Behavior of Hatchling Sea Turtle Hatchling sea turtles go on their specific migratory track, along the North Atlantic Gyre, since generations, in their life cycle. This migratory track originates from their birthplace at the east coast of Florida, USA. Starting from their nests at the east coast of Florida, USA, they cross the beach to the sea and migrate offshore to the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Gyre. This is a circular system encircling the Sargasso Sea (Cain et al 2005). They remain in the Gyre system for several years and cross to the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean. After that they return to the south eastern USA i.e. their birth place, to reside in the coastal feeding grounds. The primary reason for this migratory pathway is that the North Atlantic Gyre is food-rich environment for young turtles. However, the turtles can not afford to stray beyond the extremes of the gyre as it will be fatal for them. Near Portugal, the east-flowing stream of the Gyre pides and the northern branch goes past Great Britain and temperature of the water falls rapidly. If at all the turtles are swept northwards they will soon die of cold. Similar is the situation at the southern extreme of the Gyre where failing to recognize the extremes of the Gyre will throw them in the vast sea and far away fro their home. So the question is how the young turtles with no experience of the Gyre, determine extremes of the Gyre so precisely? Do they have some kind of map built in them and some sensory system continuously sensing and telling them as where on this map they are? We will return to the answer but before, let us explore another equally important example. Navigation of Spiny Lobsters The Caribbean Spiny Lobster resides on hard bottom and coral reefs throughout the waters of Caribbean and south eastern US. They are nocturnal and spend their day protected within crevices and holes. They travel considerable distance during night and at the end comeback to either same den or another similar den nearby. Even when these lobsters are taken away and left at a location several kilometers away from their home, they come back home. Again the question is how they the direction and path to their home. Which sensory system they rely upon for such a perfect navigational capability? Navigation Based on Magnetic Sensory System These marine animals have developed a geomagnetic compass to determine direction (Lohmann et al 1995a). Behavioral experiments under replicated magnetic field conditions have stimulated similar navigational behavior in hatchling turtles and spiny lobster than that in their actual migratory path. But to return home with such an accuracy and precision requires having much more than just magnetic compass sense. They must be capable be constructing maps by detecting and combining different features of magnetic field. Several features of magnetic field like field intensity and the angle at which geomagnetic lines intersect Earths surface vary with latitude, predictably and these can be used in position finding (Lohmann 1999). Johnsen et al (2005) have reviewed physics and neurobiology of magnetorecection. They have examined the possible mechanisms of magnetoreception. The mechanisms are 1. Electromagnetic Induction, 2. Chemical Magnetoreception and 3. Magnetite sensors. The authors have evaluated the physics and / or chemistry underlying each of these mechanisms, evidence for these mechanisms and contradictions in accepting these mechanisms. Mechanism Underlying Magnetic Orientation Though, little understanding has been gained about the basic mechanisms underlying magnetoreception, based on behavioral experiments it can be said without any doubt that, there exists a fairly evolved magnetoreception and magnetic sensory system based on geomagnetism that helps them navigate so well in absence of any other sensory system to do the same. Not only the magnetoreception system, rather the entire magnetic sensory system is still a mystery to be solved. Which part of the neural system receives the magnetic signal from the environment, which part of the neural system is then takes these signals for further processing, how the signals are processed, what signals are given to which part of the neural system to generate the actuation signal. The entire circuitry and not just the circuitry but the higher order processing aspects are all very little known. The reason being the complexity of the neural network of the vertebrate, which makes it difficult to isolate the magnetic effects from other effects for deriving useful information by employing the electrophysiological studies. To overcome complexity of neural network of the vertebrates, a simple invertebrate Tritonia Diomedea was chosen for electrophysiological studies. This animal was chosen as it shows magnetic orientation under behavioral experiments and has very simple central nervous system consisting of approximately 7000 neurons in six fused ganglia and many of these neurons can be identified by their color, size and location within central ganglia. Besides, the nervous system is readily accessible for electrophysiological studies. Intracellular electrophysiological recordings show that three bilaterally symmetric pairs of identifiable neurons respond with altered electrical activity to changes in Earths magnetic field strength. Two of these pairs identified as Pd5 and Pd6 are excited by changes in direction of ambient magnetic field, while the third pair Pd7 neuron is inhibited by same magnetic stimuli that excites Pd5 and Pd6. Therefore, it can be concludes that in Tritonia Diomedea the three neuron pairs Pd5, Pd6 and pd7, are magnetically responsive cells and function in the neural circuitry underlying magnetic orientation behavior. Recent anatomical, electrophysiological and immunological analyses have provided some insight into likely roles of these neurons. Pd5 and Pd6 are large cells (~ 400 m) and produce peptide neurotransmitters and therefore, these are likely to function in generating or modulating the motor output of the magnetic orientation circuitry. The function of Pd7 is not so obvious, however some possible functionality of the same has been offered. Like Pd7 possibly controls or modulates some subtle aspects of tuning or locomotion that occurs during magnetic orientation behavior. Another possibility is that it might be suppressing the behavior that otherwise impede magnetic orientation or locomotion. Besides, neurobiological investigation of magnetic orientation in Tritonia Diomedea a few work has been done on the neural mechanisms underlying magnetic navigation behavior of vertebrates. However, not much success has been reported so far primarily due to complexity of their neural network. Also, hardly any work has been done on the role higher order signal processing associated with sensory systems. It should be noted that the original signals detected by sensors are considerably altered by the higher order signal processing and has hardly any resemblance with the original signals. Therefore, this aspect is very important and should find special focus in any serious research aiming to reveal the basic mechanisms underlying magnetic orientation behavior of different animals. References Cain S. D., Boles L. C, Wang J. H. and Lohmann K. J. (2005). Magnetic Orientation and Navigation in Marine Turtles, Lobsters, and Molluscs: Concepts and Conundrums. Integr. Comp. Biol., 45, 539-546. Johnsen Snke and Lohmann K. J. (2005). The Physics and Neurobiology of Magnetoreception. Nature Reviews (Neuroscience), 6, 703-712. Lohmann, K. J., Pentcheff N. D., Nevitt G. A., Stetten G. D., Zimmer-Faust R. K., Jarrard H. E. et al. (1995a). Magnetic Orientation of Spiny Lobsters in the Ocean: Experiments with Undersea Coil Systems, J. Exp. Biol., 198, 2041-2048. Lohmann K. J., Hester J. T. and Lohmann CMF. (1999). Long Distance Navigation in Sea Turtles, Ethol. Ecol. Evol., 11, 1-23.